PIDP3250 Contributions and Media
"On strategy that I believe we can implement is providing detailed, critical and helpful feedback and motivation words to our students, instead of just saying “do your best”. In addition, we can also provide them reasons for ‘doing their best” which will hopefully be motivating for students."
Just telling our students to "do their best" will not be very helpful to them. They need to understand "why" and "how" to do their best.
This semester, in the class that I am teaching, I presented a gap analysis to my students, by getting them to think about 3 key questions:
2 What is your current situation?
3. How are you going to get there?
Road Map for Visible Learning
This model of visual learning which is based on John Hattie’s practical road map for implementation in the classroom. It examines their impact on student achievement and create innovation in the learning environment.
Learning is Messy
This article discusses the benefit of being transparent in the classroom and some techniques to move towards more open and transparent classroom environments.
1) Document everything
2) Create a digital learning community
3) Digital Portfolio of Learning
5) Use Social Media
An excerpt from an article about transparency in the classroom:
Teachers and students alike should consider blogging because it helps make our thinking and learning visible. We need to be more reflective as professionals and we need to model and encourage reflection for our students. The best teacher blogs are ones that share insight into the classroom experience, sharing the ups and downs, the successes and failures. Consider that by having a blog, other teachers just like you might have the courage to try something or learn from you. Blogging is one of the most transparent and scary things we can do as educators. It is also one of the ways we can regularly communicate with and invite parents into our classrooms and the insights we bring to our profession. For students, it provides them a voice and an opportunity to very publicly wrestle with questions and concepts for an audience far greater than their teacher and classmates.
Heutagogy and Lifelong Learning: A Review of Heutagogical Practice and Self-Determined Learning
Here is an excerpt:
The heutagogical approach can be viewed as a progression from pedagogy to andragogy to heutagogy, with learners likewise progressing in maturity and autonomy. More mature learners require less instructor control and course structure and can be more self-directed in their learning, while less mature learners require more instructor guidance and course scaffolding. Cognitive development of learners, a requirement for critical reflection and discourse to occur, could also be integrated into this pyramid, with cognitive development progressing in parallel with learner maturity and autonomy.
With its basis in andragogy, heutagogy further extends the andragogical approach and can be understood as a continuum of andragogy (Table 2). In andragogy, curriculum, questions, discussions, and assessment are designed by the instructor according to the learner needs; in heutagogy, the learner sets the learning course, designing and developing the map of learning, from curriculum to assessment. Heutagogy emphasizes development of capabilities in addition to competencies (andragogy).
Response: "Flow" In The Classroom
Flow theory is a learning theory that was proposed by the psychologist Mihály Csíkszentmihályi [shik-sent-me’-hi]. In his own words, Csíkszentmihályi explains that he “developed a theory of optimal experience based on the concept of flow—the state in which people are so involved in an activity that nothing else seems to matter; the experience itself is so enjoyable that people will do it even at great cost, for the sheer sake of doing it” (Buchanan, 1991, p. 80).
Recently, I read a blog called: Response: "Flow" In The Classroom. I enjoy reading it as it talks about creating an optimal learning environment.
Here is an excerpt from http://blogs.edweek.org/teachers/classroom_qa_with_larry_ferlazzo/2013/03/response_flow_in_the_classroom.html:
But how can teachers encourage flow? Although the constraints of today's classrooms can make it challenging, here are some research-based tips for injecting more flow into education.
1. Challenge kids--but not too much. One of the central conditions for flow, according to Csikszentmihalyi, is that an activity be challenging at a level just above one's current abilities. If a challenge is too hard, students will become anxious and give up; if it's too easy, they'll become bored. It's important to find the sweet spot, where the activity is difficult enough to challenge students without overwhelming them. Students may require a lesson to be scaffolded--breaking it down into manageable pieces--in order to find the right balance.
2. Make assignments feel relevant to students' lives. Research has shown that when students understand the relevance of a classroom activity, they are more likely to engage in it. Whenever possible, it can help for teachers to point out how an activity connects to students' own lives, or encourage students to discover the relevance for themselves. In a 2009 study published in Science, researchers Chris Hulleman and Judith Harackiewicz found that when low-performing high school science students were instructed to write about how a lesson was relevant to their lives, these students showed greater interest in the subject--a fundamental part of flow--and got higher grades than students who didn't participate in the writing exercise.
3. Encourage choice. When students are given an opportunity to choose their own activities and work with autonomy, they will engage more with the task. In a 2000 study led by Aaron Black of the University of Rochester, students who sensed more teacher support for autonomy felt more competent and less anxious, reported more interest and enjoyment in their work, and produced higher-quality work in their class than students who didn't believe they had as much autonomy.
4. Set clear goals (and give feedback along the way). Csikszentmihalyi has found that a fundamental condition for flow is that an activity should have clear goals, which provides structure and direction. This has also proven to be true in the classroom, especially when students help define their goals. And as students progress toward these goals, research suggests it's also important for them to receive ongoing feedback along the way. This doesn't necessarily mean that teachers must interrupt a students' process, but it does mean that students must be aware of how (or whether) their efforts are moving toward the goal. By receiving this kind of feedback, students can adjust their efforts in a way that helps them stay in flow.
5. Build positive relationships. Education researcher David Shernoff, of Northern Illinois University, has shown that positive peer and teacher-student relationships increase flow. It can sometimes take more time to build these relationships, but some subtle strategies can go a long way, such as by communicating respectfully toward students and making clear that their input is valued. For instance, Alex Angell, a history teacher at Berkeley High School in Berkeley, California, says that during class discussions, he's careful to let students complete their thoughts and then use his own body language--eye contact, leaning toward them--to show he's heard their views.
6. Foster deep concentration. A bedrock of flow is feeling completely absorbed by an activity, and that often requires a state of deep concentration. This may be hard to facilitate in a classroom, particularly in middle or high school, where periods are relatively short. But if it's possible to allow, students will reap real rewards from working without interruption. Research by Kevin Rathunde of the University of Utah, conducted with Csikszentmihalyi, found that flow was higher in Montessori schools than in traditional schools because of the more flexible schedules of Montessori schools--students who are fully concentrating on a task are not interrupted as often.
7. Offer hands-on exercises. Flow research, like other education research, has shown that hands-on activities often get kids more engaged in their learning than more passive activities. Making things, solving problems, and creating artwork tend to induce more flow than lectures or videos, as long as the materials students need to complete the assignment are readily available.
8. Make 'em laugh. Humor is a great way to engage kids in any setting, especially the classroom. It helps encourage flow not just by geting kids' attention and keeping them engaged but by modeling enthusiasm for a subject. A teacher doesn't have to be an actor or comedian to engage kids, but it helps to speak their language. When Shernoff and others explored what types of activities induced flow in high school classrooms, they found that teachers who used humor and showed enthusiasm for the lesson could even turn a lecture into an engaging activity.
Buchanan, R. (1991). The psychology of optimal experience by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi. Design Issues 8 (1), 80-81.
Metacognition is thinking about one's think.
From the website:
"Metacognition" is often simply defined as "thinking about thinking." In actuality, defining metacognition is not that simple. Although the term has been part of the vocabulary of educational psychologists for the last couple of decades, and the concept for as long as humans have been able to reflect on their cognitive experiences, there is much debate over exactly what metacognition is. One reason for this confusion is the fact that there are several terms currently used to describe the same basic phenomenon (e.g., self-regulation, executive control), or an aspect of that phenomenon (e.g., meta-memory), and these terms are often used interchangeably in the literature. While there are some distinctions between definitions (see Van Zile-Tamsen, 1994, 1996 for a full discussion), all emphasize the role of executive processes in the overseeing and regulation of cognitive processes.
How is metacognition applied in a classroom setting? What are some strategies of metacognition in a clasroom setting?
As suggested by the website, here are some metacognitino strategies
Out of all the strategies suggested, I find fostering self-reflection most useful for me. It is something new for me. Since I teach in a mathametical course, before I would not consider applying self-reflection in my course. However, after reading the article and doing some research, I now see the value in self-reflection and I will incorporate it in my future teaching.
What Teachers need to know about Critical Thinking vs Creative Thinking
I find it interesting to see the difference between critical thinking and creative. Before, I thought they were the same thing, but now, I understand the difference. From the website, we can see that both creative and critical thinkers use different thinking strategies:
The Intellectual Standards
We all have a system to break down how we understand things, how the world looks to us, how we make sense of the world… But once we have thought about something, how do we know if we’re right? How do we know if our thinking is any good?” Gary Meegan from https://theelementsofthought.org/the-intellectual-standards/
According to Criticalthinking.org, there are nine Intellectual Standards we use to assess thinking: Clarity, Accuracy, Precision, Relevance, Depth, Breadth, Logic, Significance, and Fairness.
Clarity forces the thinking to be explained well so that it is easy to understand. When thinking is easy to follow, it has Clarity.
Accuracy makes sure that all information is correct and free from error. If the thinking is reliable, then it has Accuracy.
Precision goes one step further than Accuracy. It demands that the words and data used are exact. If no more details could be added, then it has Precision.
Relevance means that everything included is important, that each part makes a difference. If something is focused on what needs to be said, there is Relevance.
Depth makes the argument thorough. It forces us to explore the complexities. If an argument includes all the nuances necessary to make the point, it has Depth.
Breadth demands that additional viewpoints are taken into account. Are all perspectives considered? When all sides of an argument are discussed, then we find Breadth.
Logical means that an argument is reasonable, the thinking is consistent and the conclusions follow from the evidence. When something makes sense step-by-step, then it is Logical.
Significance compels us to include the most important ideas. We don’t want to leave out crucial facts that would help to make a point. When everything that is essential is included, then we find Significance.
Fairness means that the argument is balanced and free from bias. It pushes us to be impartial and even-handed toward other positions. When an argument is objective, there is Fairness.
What is critical thinking? According to Gregory Bassham (2011) critical thinking is the general term given to a wide range of cognitive skills and intellectual personalities needed to effectively identify, analyze, and evaluate arguments and truth claims; to discover and overcome personal preconceptions and biases; to formulate and present convincing reasons in support of conclusions; and to make reasonable, intelligent decisions about what to believe and what to do.
Characteristics of a Well-Cultivated Critical Thinker
Habitual utilization of the intellectual traits produce a well-cultivated critical thinker who is able to:
Double Loop Thinking
Single loop means learning for the first time. When learning for the first time, you learn how it is done and practice to perfection over time. It is a repeated attempt to answer the same problem. It ignores the question of why the problem arose in the first place.
Double loop learning is when you have to re-adjust your previously learning information. This is when you take previously learned information and are forced to learn it again, but now in a different way. This is achieved by using feedback from past actions to question assumptions underlying current views. It seeks alternatives in order to dramatically improve things.
Here's a video by Simon Sinek:
"People don't buy what you do, but buy why you do it."
"What" -- what do we do?
"How" -- how do we do it? -- differentiating proposition
"Why" -- why do we do it?
The goal is not to sell to people who need what you have. The goal is to sell to people to believe what you believe. The goal is not to hire people who need a job. It is to hire people who believe what you believe.
"We make great computers.
They are beautifully designed, simple to use, and user friendly. Want to buy one? Nah."
That's how most of us communicate. We say what we do. We say how we do it.
Here is how Apple communicates:
"Everything we do we believe in challenging the status quo. We believe in thinking different.
The way we challenge the status quo is that we create our product beautifully designed, simple to use, and user friendly, which happen to make great computers. Want to buy one?"
Here's a TedTalk by Jose Bowen. It talks about the role of instructor during the teaching naked cycle.
I like the way the speaker breaks down technology into various major changes. It is so true: our relationship to knowledge has indeed change as nowadays we have access to lots of information. I do agree that students can get the course content online somewhere else, so we are in the business of helping "student sort the information and think about the information".
I like this video. I plan to use this video for my class in the future as it will help with setting up some of the ground rule for my class. It will be an effective way to get the message across in a fun way.
The expectancy theory assumes that our behavior is the result of our decision to maximize pleasure and minimize pain. Each person has different values and perception.
Effort -> Performance -> Outcomes
Expectancy: Employees have different expectations of what they are capable of achieving.
Instrumentality: Employees need to believe that they will get what was promised to them.
Valence: The rewards need to be something that the employee actually values and enough for them to make the effort worthwhile.
Very true, we can apply the same to a classroom.
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